The extremely bright object high in the western sky is the planet Venus.
Venus is the second-closest planet
to the Sun
, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.
The planet is named after Venus
, the Roman goddess
of love. It is the brightest natural object in the night sky, except for the Moon
, reaching an apparent magnitude
of −4.6. Because Venus is an inferior planet
, it never appears to venture far from the Sun: its elongation
reaches a maximum of 47.8°. Venus reaches its maximum brightness shortly before sunrise or shortly after sunset, for which reason it is often called the Morning Star or the Evening Star.
Classified as a terrestrial planet
, it is sometimes called Earth's "sister planet," because they are similar in size, gravity, and bulk composition. Venus is covered with an opaque layer of highly reflective clouds
of sulfuric acid
, preventing its surface from being seen from space in visible light
; this was a subject of great speculation until some of its secrets were revealed by planetary science
in the twentieth century. Venus has the densest atmosphere
of all the terrestrial planets, consisting mostly of carbon dioxide
, as it has no carbon cycle
to lock carbon back into rocks and surface features, nor organic life to absorb it in biomass. It has become so hot that the earth-like oceans that the young Venus is believed to have possessed have totally evaporated, leaving a dusty dry desertscape with many slab-like rocks. The best hypothesis is that the evaporated water has dissociated, and with the lack of a planetary magnetic field, the hydrogen has been swept into interplanetary space by the solar wind. The atmospheric pressure
at the planet's surface is 92 times that of the Earth.
Venus rotates once every 243 days—by far the slowest rotation period of any of the major planets. To an observer on the surface of Venus the time from one sunrise to the next would be 116.75 days.
As the brightest point-like object in the sky, Venus is a commonly misreported 'unidentified flying object
'. U.S. President Jimmy Carter reported having seen a UFO
in 1969, which later analysis suggested was probably the planet, and countless other people have mistaken Venus for something more exotic.
As it moves around its orbit, Venus displays phases
in a telescopic
view like those of the Moon
: In the phases of Venus
the planet presents a small "full" image when it is on the opposite side of the Sun. It shows a larger "quarter phase" when it is at its maximum elongations from the Sun. Venus is at its brightest in the night sky and presents a much larger "thin crescent" in telescopic views as it comes around to the near side between the Earth and the Sun. Venus is at its largest and presents its "new passes" when it is between the Earth and the Sun. Since it has an atmosphere it can be seen in a telescope by the halo of light refracted around the planet.
Venus was known in the Hindu Jyotisha
since early times as the planet Shukra
In the West, before the advent of the telescope
, Venus was known as a 'wandering star
Several cultures historically held its appearances as a morning and evening star to be those of two separate bodies. Pythagoras
is usually credited with recognizing in the sixth century BC that the morning and evening stars were a single body, though he thought that Venus orbited the Earth. When Galileo
first observed the planet in the early 17th century, he found that it showed phases
like the Moon's, varying from crescent to gibbous to full and vice versa. This could be possible only if Venus orbited the Sun, and this was among the first observations to clearly contradict the Ptolemaic geocentric model
that the solar system was concentric and centered on the Earth.
There is a spacecraft operating in orbit around the planet now. Venus Express
probe was designed and built by the European Space Agency
. Launched on November 9, 2005 by a Russian Soyuz-Fregat
rocket it successfully assumed a polar orbit
around Venus on April 11, 2006. The probe is undertaking a detailed study of the Venusian atmosphere and clouds, and is also mapping the planet's plasma
environment and surface characteristics, particularly temperatures.
As one of the brightest objects in the sky, Venus has been known since prehistoric times and as such has gained an entrenched position in human culture. It is described in Babylonian cuneiform
texts such as the Venus tablet of Ammisaduqa
, which relates observations that possibly date from 1600 BC. The Babylonians named the planet Ishtar
, the personification of womanhood, and goddess of love.
The Ancient Egyptians
believed Venus to be two separate bodies and knew the morning star as Tioumoutiri and the evening star as Ouaiti.
Likewise believing Venus to be two bodies, the Ancient Greeks
called the morning star, Phosphoro, the "Bringer of Light". The evening star they called Hesperos, the "star of the evening", but by Hellenistic
times, they realized the two were the same planet. Hesperos would be translated into Latin
and Phosphoros as Lucifer
("Light Bearer"), a poetic term later used to refer to the fallen angel cast out of heaven.
would later name the planet in honor of their goddess of love, Venus
, whereas the Greeks used the name of her Greek counterpart, Aphrodite
Venus was important to the Maya civilization
, who developed a religious calendar
based in part upon its motions, and held the motions of Venus to determine the propitious time for events such as war. They named it Noh Ek', the Great Star, and Xux Ek', the Wasp Star. The Maya were aware of the planet's synodic period, and could compute it to within a hundredth part of a day.
people named the planet Kileken
, and have an oral tradition
about it called The Orphan Boy.
Venus is important in many Australian aboriginal cultures
, such as that of the Yolngu
people in Northern Australia. The Yolngu gather after sunset to await the rising of Venus, which they call Barnumbirr
. As she approaches, in the early hours before dawn, she draws behind her a rope of light attached to the Earth, and along this rope, with the aid of a richly decorated "Morning Star Pole", the people are able to communicate with their dead loved ones, showing that they still love and remember them. Barnumbirr is also an important creator-spirit in the Dreaming
, and "sang" much of the country into life.